Sumo Wrestling

Sumo Wrestling Inhaltsverzeichnis

Sumō ist eine aus Japan stammende Form des Ringkampfs. Einen Sumō-Kämpfer bezeichnet man als Sumōtori oder Rikishi. Sumō [sɯmoː] (japanisch 相撲, Sumō bzw. 大相撲, Ōzumō) ist eine aus Japan stammende Bill Gutman: Sumo Wrestling. Capstone Press, Minneapolis ,​. Many translated example sentences containing "sumo wrestling" – German-​English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Many translated example sentences containing "sumo wrestler" – German-​English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Sumo wrestlers, Japan, photographed between and 1 b&w original photographic print(s). ID: PA1-f Find out more about this image from​.

Sumo Wrestling

Notizbuch Sumo Wrestling Don't Waste Your Time On Therapy Waste It On Sumo Wrestling: Notizbuch linierte Seiten Din A5 Notizheft Geschenk für Sumo. Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema Sumo Wrestling sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Wählen Sie aus erstklassigen Inhalten. Many translated example sentences containing "sumo wrestler" – German-​English dictionary and search engine for German translations. Om te Filteroffen naar ozeki wordt een constante prestatie verwacht, iets als Doppelter Einsatz Stream winstpartijen over de laatste Gesetzliche Feiertage BawГј basho's, uiteraard zonder negatief resultaat. Below are a few more of Ryogoku's attractions that could be of interest to sumo fans:. Japanese martial art. For example, the association prohibits wrestlers from driving cars, although this is partly out of necessity as many wrestlers are too big to fit behind a steering wheel. Each of the ring-entering ceremonies is a Shinto purification ritual, and every newly promoted yokozuna the highest rank in sumo Kostenlos Kartenspiele his first ring-entering ceremony at the Meiji Shrine in Tokyo. Sumo Wrestling Sumo Wrestling

At the pinnacle of the sumo hierarchy stands the yokozuna grand champion. Unlike wrestlers in lower ranks, a yokozuna cannot be demoted, but he will be expected to retire when his performance begins to worsen.

The best way to see sumo is to attend a sumo tournament. Tickets are sold for each day of the day tournaments. They can be purchase in advance through the official vendor or via buysumotickets.

Alternatively, they can be purchased at convenience stores some Japanese skills required or at the stadiums. The stadium often sells out, especially on weekends and national holidays.

But even if a day is sold out in advance, a limited number of same-day balcony seat tickets are sold on the day at the stadium. Sumo tickets go on sale roughly one month before the start of each tournament.

Lower division matches start from from on days , second division Juryo matches from and top division Makuuchi matches from Ring entering ceremonies between divisions are also interesting to watch.

The highest ranked wrestlers have their matches just before On the last day of each tournament, the schedule is shifted forward by 30 minutes to accommodate the victory ceremony at the end.

The stadium atmosphere improves with the arrival of more spectators as it gets later in the day when the most spectacular matches happen.

Intervals between bouts also lengthen as they include longer preparation times and more pre-match action between the high-ranked wrestlers.

We recommend spectators with limited time to be present at the stadium at least for the top division action between and For those visiting Japan between sumo tournaments, there are a few other ways to see sumo matches.

They include exhibition tournaments that are held across the country in between official tournaments and occasional retirement ceremonies of prominent wrestlers.

Retirement ceremonies usually include an exhibition contest, some light-hearted performances by wrestlers and a time-consuming hair cutting ritual to sever the top knot that is symbolic to an active wrestler.

See the official website for a calendar. Outside the professional sumo world, there are some universities and high schools that maintain sumo clubs, some of which may be able to accommodate visits by tourists.

Furthermore, there are occasional sumo performances or contests at some shrines and festivals. Perhaps the best way to appreciate sumo besides attending a tournament is to visit a sumo stable to witness a morning practice session.

Sumo stables are where the wrestlers live and train together and where all aspects of life, from sleeping and eating to training and free time, are strictly regimented by the stable master.

There are about forty stables, all of which are located in the Greater Tokyo Region, especially in Tokyo's Ryogoku district.

However, sumo stables are neither public places nor sightseeing spots. Only a small number of stables accept visits by tourists, and they insist that tourists are accompanied by a person who is fluent in Japanese and closely familiar with the customs of the sumo world.

Furthermore, visitors are expected to follow the house rules strictly and not disturb the training session. Expect to sit silently on the floor for two to three hours.

In practice, it is very difficult for foreign tourists to visit a stable on their own. Instead, the recommended way to witness a morning practice is to join a guided tour.

Various organizations and companies, such as Klook and Voyagin , offer such tours and typically charge around 10, yen for a single person and around yen for additional group members.

Tokyo 's Ryogoku district has been the center of the sumo world for about two centuries. The district is home to many sumo stables and the Kokugikan sumo stadium where three of the six annual tournaments are held.

Below are a few more of Ryogoku's attractions that could be of interest to sumo fans:. Another district in Tokyo with a strong connection to sumo is located around Tomioka Hachimangu Shrine, a couple of kilometers south of Ryogoku:.

This and other issues eventually led the Sumo Association to limit the number of foreigners allowed to one in each stable.

Women are not allowed to compete in professional sumo. Each tournament begins on a Sunday and runs for 15 days, ending also on a Sunday.

Each day is structured so that the highest-ranked contestants compete at the end of the day. Thus, wrestling starts in the morning with the jonokuchi wrestlers and ends at around six o'clock in the evening with bouts involving the yokozuna.

If two wrestlers are tied for the top, they wrestle each other and the winner takes the title. Three-way ties for a championship are rare, at least in the top division.

In these cases, the three wrestle each other in pairs with the first to win two in a row take the tournament. More complex systems for championship playoffs involving four or more wrestlers also exist, but these are usually only seen in determining the winner of one of the lower divisions.

The matchups for each day of the tournament are announced a day in advance. They are determined by the sumo elders who are members of the judging division of the Sumo Association.

As many more wrestlers are in each division than matchups during the tournament, each wrestler only competes against a selection of opponents from the same division, though small overlaps can occur between two divisions.

With the exception of the san'yaku -ranked wrestlers, the first bouts tend to be between wrestlers who are within a few ranks of each other.

Afterwards, the selection of opponents takes into account a wrestler's prior performance. For example, in the lower divisions, wrestlers with the same record in a tournament are generally matched up with each other and the last matchups often involve undefeated wrestlers competing against each other, even if they are from opposite ends of the division.

In the top division, in the last few days, wrestlers with exceptional records often have matches against much more highly ranked opponents, including san'yaku wrestlers, especially if they are still in the running for the top division championship.

Similarly, more highly ranked wrestlers with very poor records may find themselves fighting wrestlers much further down the division. Traditionally, on the final day, the last three bouts of the tournament are between the top six ranked wrestlers, with the top two competing in the final matchup, unless injuries during the tournament prevent this.

Certain match-ups are prohibited in regular tournament play. Wrestlers who are from the same training stable cannot compete against each other, nor can wrestlers who are brothers, even if they join different stables.

The one exception to this rule is that training stable partners and brothers can face each other in a championship-deciding playoff match.

This colorful name for the culmination of the tournament echoes the words of the playwright Zeami to represent the excitement of the decisive bouts and the celebration of the victor.

The Emperor's Cup is presented to the wrestler who wins the top-division makuuchi championship. Numerous other mostly sponsored prizes are also awarded to him.

These prizes are often rather elaborate, ornate gifts, such as giant cups, decorative plates, and statuettes. Others are quite commercial, such as one trophy shaped like a giant Coca-Cola bottle.

Promotion and relegation for the next tournament are determined by a wrestler's score over the 15 days. In the top division, the term kachikoshi means a score of 8—7 or better, as opposed to makekoshi , which indicates a score of 7—8 or worse.

A wrestler who achieves kachikoshi almost always is promoted further up the ladder, the level of promotion being higher for better scores.

See the makuuchi article for more details on promotion and relegation. For the list of upper divisions champions since , refer to the list of top division champions and the list of second division champions.

At the initial charge, both wrestlers must jump up from the crouch simultaneously after touching the surface of the ring with two fists at the start of the bout.

Upon completion of the bout, the referee must immediately designate his decision by pointing his gunbai or war-fan towards the winning side.

The winning technique kimarite used by the winner would then be announced to the audience. The referee's decision is not final and may be disputed by the five judges seated around the ring.

If this happens, they meet in the center of the ring to hold a mono-ii a talk about things. After reaching a consensus, they can uphold or reverse the referee's decision or order a rematch, known as a torinaoshi.

The wrestlers then return to their starting positions and bow to each other before retiring. A winning wrestler in the top division may receive additional prize money in envelopes from the referee if the matchup has been sponsored.

If a yokozuna is defeated by a lower-ranked wrestler, it is common and expected for audience members to throw their seat cushions into the ring and onto the wrestlers , though this practice is technically prohibited.

In contrast to the time in bout preparation, bouts are typically very short, usually less than a minute most of the time only a few seconds.

Extremely rarely, a bout can go on for several minutes. If a bout lasts up to four minutes, the referee or one of the judges sitting around the ring may call a mizu-iri or " water break ".

The wrestlers are carefully separated, have a brief break, and then return to the exact position they left, as determined by the referee.

If after four more minutes, they are still deadlocked, they may have a second break, after which they start from the beginning.

Further deadlock with no end of the bout in sight can lead to a draw hikiwake , an extremely rare result in modern sumo.

The last draw in the top division was in September A sumo wrestler leads a highly regimented way of life. The Sumo Association prescribes the behavior of its wrestlers in some detail.

For example, the association prohibits wrestlers from driving cars, although this is partly out of necessity as many wrestlers are too big to fit behind a steering wheel.

On entering sumo, they are expected to grow their hair long to form a topknot, or chonmage , similar to the samurai hairstyles of the Edo period.

Furthermore, they are expected to wear the chonmage and traditional Japanese dress when in public, allowing them to be identified immediately as wrestlers.

The type and quality of the dress depends on the wrestler's rank. Rikishi in jonidan and below are allowed to wear only a thin cotton robe called a yukata , even in winter.

Furthermore, when outside, they must wear a form of wooden sandal called geta. The higher-ranked sekitori can wear silk robes of their own choice, and the quality of the garb is significantly improved.

Similar distinctions are made in stable life. When the sekitori are training, the junior wrestlers may have chores to do, such as assisting in cooking the lunch, cleaning, and preparing the bath, holding a sekitori' s towel, or wiping the sweat from him.

The ranking hierarchy is preserved for the order of precedence in bathing after training, and in eating lunch.

Wrestlers are not normally allowed to eat breakfast and are expected to have a siesta -like nap after a large lunch. The most common type of lunch served is the traditional sumo meal of chankonabe , which consists of a simmering stew of various fish, meat, and vegetables cooked at the table.

It is usually eaten with rice and washed down with beer. This regimen of no breakfast and a large lunch followed by a sleep is intended to help wrestlers put on a lot of weight so as to compete more effectively.

In the afternoon, the junior wrestlers again usually have cleaning or other chores, while their sekitori counterparts may relax, or deal with work issues related to their fan clubs.

Younger wrestlers also attend classes, although their education differs from the typical curriculum of their non-sumo peers. In the evening, sekitori may go out with their sponsors, while the junior wrestlers generally stay at home in the stable, unless they are to accompany the stablemaster or a sekitori as his tsukebito manservant when he is out.

Becoming a tsukebito for a senior member of the stable is a typical duty. A sekitori has a number of tsukebito , depending on the size of the stable or in some cases depending on the size of the sekitori.

The junior wrestlers are given the most mundane tasks such as cleaning the stable, running errands, and even washing or massaging the exceptionally large sekitori while only the senior tsukebito accompany the sekitori when he goes out.

The sekitori are given their own room in the stable, or may live in their own apartments, as do married wrestlers; the junior wrestlers sleep in communal dormitories.

Thus, the world of the sumo wrestler is split broadly between the junior wrestlers, who serve, and the sekitori , who are served.

Life is especially harsh for recruits, to whom the worst jobs tend to be allocated, and the dropout rate at this stage is high.

The negative health effects of the sumo lifestyle can become apparent later in life. Sumo wrestlers have a life expectancy between 60 and 65, more than 10 years shorter than the average Japanese male, as the diet and sport take a toll on the wrestler's body.

Many develop type 2 diabetes or high blood pressure , and they are prone to heart attacks due to the enormous amount of body mass and fat that they accumulate.

The excessive intake of alcohol can lead to liver problems and the stress on their joints due to their excess weight can cause arthritis.

Recently, the standards of weight gain are becoming less strict, in an effort to improve the overall health of the wrestlers. Some sumo organizations have minimum height requirements for their competitors.

As of [update] , the monthly salary figures in Japanese yen for the top two divisions were: [31]. Wrestlers lower than the second-highest division, who are considered trainees, receive only a fairly small allowance instead of a salary.

This bonus increases every time the wrestler scores a kachikoshi with larger kachikoshi giving larger raises. Special increases in this bonus are also awarded for winning the top division championship with an extra large increase for a "perfect" championship victory with no losses , and also for scoring a gold star or kinboshi an upset of a yokozuna by a maegashira.

San'yaku wrestlers also receive a relatively small additional tournament allowance, depending on their rank, and yokozuna receive an additional allowance every second tournament, associated with the making of a new tsuna belt worn in their ring entering ceremony.

Individual top division matches can also be sponsored by companies. Sumo is also practised as an amateur sport, with participants in college, high school, and grade school in Japan.

In addition to college and school tournaments, open amateur tournaments are also held. The sport at this level is stripped of most of the ceremony. The most successful amateur wrestlers in Japan usually college champions can be allowed to enter professional sumo at makushita third division or sandanme fourth division rather than from the very bottom of the ladder.

These ranks are called makushita tsukedashi and sandanme tsukedashi , and are currently equivalent to makushita 10, makushita 15, or sandanme depending on the level of amateur success achieved.

Many of the current top division wrestlers entered professional sumo by this route. All amateur athletes entering the professional ranks must be under 23 to satisfy the entry, except those who qualify for makushita tsukedashi or sandanme tsukedashi , who may be up to The International Sumo Federation was established to encourage the sport's development worldwide, including holding international championships.

A key aim of the federation is to have sumo recognized as an Olympic sport. Amateur sumo clubs are gaining in popularity in the United States, with competitions regularly being held in major cities across the country.

Now, however, the sport has grown beyond the sphere of Japanese diaspora and athletes come from a variety of ethnic, cultural, and sporting backgrounds.

Amateur sumo is particularly strong in Europe. Many athletes come to the sport from a background in judo , freestyle wrestling , or other grappling sports such as sambo.

Some Eastern European athletes have been successful enough to be scouted into professional sumo in Japan, much like their Japanese amateur counterparts.

Brazil is another center of amateur sumo, introduced by Japanese immigrants who arrived during the first half of the twentieth century.

The first Brazilian sumo tournament was held in Sumo wrestlers wear Mawashi which is essentially a thick foot-long belt, that they tie in knots in the back.

During matches, the wrestler will grab onto the other wrestler's Mawashi and use it to help them and make moves during a match.

The different Mawashi that the wrestlers wear differentiate their rank. Top rated wrestlers wear different colors of silk Mawashi during tournament, while lower rated wrestlers are limited to just black cotton.

Sumo wrestlers wear Mawashi because there are fewer ways to cheat when you wear one. Their hair is put in what they call a topknot, and they use wax to get it to stay.

Wax is applied to sumo wrestlers' hair daily by sumo hairdressers Tokoyama. Once a wrestler joins a stable, they are required to grow out their hair in order to form a topknot.

Outside of tournaments and practices, in daily life, sumo wrestlers are required to wear traditional Japanese clothes. What you can wear in public is also determined by rank.

Lower rated wrestlers must wear a Yukata at all times, even in winter, where higher rated wrestlers have more choice in what they wear. Partial squat before engaging.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Sumo disambiguation. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Japanese martial art.

Main article: Professional sumo divisions. Main article: Honbasho. Play media. Japan portal Society portal Martial arts portal.

Kids Web Japan. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved May 16, Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on June 28, Retrieved June 23, Saga Shinbun.

Retrieved December 8, USA Dojo. Retrieved December 29, Kokugakuin University. Beginner's Guide of Sumo. Japan Sumo Association.

Archived from the original on June 1, Retrieved June 26, February 19,

Interestingly, the match can also end if one of the wrestlers loses his mawashi , or loincloth — in which case the de-loinclothed wrestler is disqualified.

More interestingly still, this rule was only adopted after Japan began adopting European read: prudish attitudes toward nudity.

This outcome is very rare in sumo, but a wardrobe malfunction did occur during a match in May , when the unfortunate wrestler Asanokiri exposed himself and was disqualified immediately.

Now I understand why. It would be easy to assume from their famously substantial girth that wrestlers live a life of excess outside their training schedule.

An average stable will contain around 15 wrestlers, and is arranged according to a strict hierarchy.

Life is hardest for the lower ranked wrestlers, who are expected to get up earliest and cook, clean, serve food and generally wait on the higher ranked wrestlers.

They even have to bathe last after training, and get last pick at dinner time — after their more senior peers have gobbled all the choice morsels!

If this sounds hard, it gets even harder. It is a fact of sumo life that the younger, inexperienced wrestlers endure systematic hazing and physical punishment in order to toughen them up.

This is part and parcel of sumo culture and something that young wrestlers know to expect, but it can sometimes go too far — resulting in injury and very rare cases even in death.

In fact, it was only very recently in the history of sumo that the wrestlers developed the chubbiness they are now famous for.

Since there are no weight divisions in professional sumo, every wrestler basically just wants to get as big as humanly possible so that he can use his weight in the ring.

Read more about him here. This is a special kind of delicious hotpot packed with meat, veggies and noodles that is specifically associated with sumo wrestlers in Japan.

It sounds absurd, but this is actually true. After a serious car accident involving a sumo wrestler, the Sumo Association banned wrestlers from driving their own cars.

This rather poetic epithet echoes the words of 14thth century playwright Zeami Motokiyo, and is meant to convey the excitement of the decisive bouts and the celebration of the victor — who receives all kinds of elaborate prizes for his success.

And a fat wad of cash, of course. Sumo referees, or gyoji , are as interesting as the wrestlers. Like the wrestlers, they enter the world of sumo at a young age about sixteen and remain in their profession until they retire.

The traditional clothing they wear in the ring is strictly graded according to rank, and as they progress up the ranks they earn honorific names by which they become known.

At the center are two white lines, the shikiri-sen , behind which the wrestlers position themselves at the start of the bout.

Women are traditionally forbidden from entering or touching the ring. Professional sumo is organized by the Japan Sumo Association.

Most practicing wrestlers are members of a training stable or heya run by one of the oyakata , who is the stablemaster for the wrestlers under him.

In , 43 training stables hosted wrestlers. Often, wrestlers have little choice in their names, which are given to them by their trainers or stablemasters , or by a supporter or family member who encouraged them into the sport.

This is particularly true of foreign-born wrestlers. A wrestler may change his wrestling name during his career, with some wrestlers changing theirs several times.

Sumo wrestling is a strict hierarchy based on sporting merit. The wrestlers are ranked according to a system that dates back to the Edo period.

Wrestlers are promoted or demoted according to their performance in six official tournaments held throughout the year.

A carefully prepared banzuke listing the full hierarchy is published two weeks prior to each sumo tournament. In addition to the professional tournaments, exhibition competitions are held at regular intervals every year in Japan, and roughly once every two years, the top-ranked wrestlers visit a foreign country for such exhibitions.

None of these displays is taken into account in determining a wrestler's future rank. Rank is determined only by performance in grand sumo tournaments or honbasho.

Wrestlers enter sumo in the lowest jonokuchi division and, ability permitting, work their way up to the top division. The ranks receive different levels of compensation, privileges, and status.

The topmost makuuchi division receives the most attention from fans and has the most complex hierarchy. In each rank are two wrestlers, the higher rank is designated as "east" and the lower as "west", so the list goes 1 east, 1 west, 2 east, 2 west, etc.

Yokozuna , or grand champions, are generally expected to compete for and to win the top division tournament title on a regular basis, hence the promotion criteria for yokozuna are very strict.

In antiquity, sumo was solely a Japanese sport. Since the s, however, the number of foreign-born sumo wrestlers has gradually increased.

In the beginning of this period, these few foreign wrestlers were listed as Japanese, but particularly since the s, a number of high-profile foreign-born wrestlers became well-known, and in more recent years have even come to dominate in the highest ranks.

This and other issues eventually led the Sumo Association to limit the number of foreigners allowed to one in each stable. Women are not allowed to compete in professional sumo.

Each tournament begins on a Sunday and runs for 15 days, ending also on a Sunday. Each day is structured so that the highest-ranked contestants compete at the end of the day.

Thus, wrestling starts in the morning with the jonokuchi wrestlers and ends at around six o'clock in the evening with bouts involving the yokozuna.

If two wrestlers are tied for the top, they wrestle each other and the winner takes the title. Three-way ties for a championship are rare, at least in the top division.

In these cases, the three wrestle each other in pairs with the first to win two in a row take the tournament. More complex systems for championship playoffs involving four or more wrestlers also exist, but these are usually only seen in determining the winner of one of the lower divisions.

The matchups for each day of the tournament are announced a day in advance. They are determined by the sumo elders who are members of the judging division of the Sumo Association.

As many more wrestlers are in each division than matchups during the tournament, each wrestler only competes against a selection of opponents from the same division, though small overlaps can occur between two divisions.

With the exception of the san'yaku -ranked wrestlers, the first bouts tend to be between wrestlers who are within a few ranks of each other.

Afterwards, the selection of opponents takes into account a wrestler's prior performance. For example, in the lower divisions, wrestlers with the same record in a tournament are generally matched up with each other and the last matchups often involve undefeated wrestlers competing against each other, even if they are from opposite ends of the division.

In the top division, in the last few days, wrestlers with exceptional records often have matches against much more highly ranked opponents, including san'yaku wrestlers, especially if they are still in the running for the top division championship.

Similarly, more highly ranked wrestlers with very poor records may find themselves fighting wrestlers much further down the division. Traditionally, on the final day, the last three bouts of the tournament are between the top six ranked wrestlers, with the top two competing in the final matchup, unless injuries during the tournament prevent this.

Certain match-ups are prohibited in regular tournament play. Wrestlers who are from the same training stable cannot compete against each other, nor can wrestlers who are brothers, even if they join different stables.

The one exception to this rule is that training stable partners and brothers can face each other in a championship-deciding playoff match.

This colorful name for the culmination of the tournament echoes the words of the playwright Zeami to represent the excitement of the decisive bouts and the celebration of the victor.

The Emperor's Cup is presented to the wrestler who wins the top-division makuuchi championship. Numerous other mostly sponsored prizes are also awarded to him.

These prizes are often rather elaborate, ornate gifts, such as giant cups, decorative plates, and statuettes.

Others are quite commercial, such as one trophy shaped like a giant Coca-Cola bottle. Promotion and relegation for the next tournament are determined by a wrestler's score over the 15 days.

In the top division, the term kachikoshi means a score of 8—7 or better, as opposed to makekoshi , which indicates a score of 7—8 or worse.

A wrestler who achieves kachikoshi almost always is promoted further up the ladder, the level of promotion being higher for better scores.

See the makuuchi article for more details on promotion and relegation. For the list of upper divisions champions since , refer to the list of top division champions and the list of second division champions.

At the initial charge, both wrestlers must jump up from the crouch simultaneously after touching the surface of the ring with two fists at the start of the bout.

Upon completion of the bout, the referee must immediately designate his decision by pointing his gunbai or war-fan towards the winning side.

The winning technique kimarite used by the winner would then be announced to the audience. The referee's decision is not final and may be disputed by the five judges seated around the ring.

If this happens, they meet in the center of the ring to hold a mono-ii a talk about things. After reaching a consensus, they can uphold or reverse the referee's decision or order a rematch, known as a torinaoshi.

The wrestlers then return to their starting positions and bow to each other before retiring. A winning wrestler in the top division may receive additional prize money in envelopes from the referee if the matchup has been sponsored.

If a yokozuna is defeated by a lower-ranked wrestler, it is common and expected for audience members to throw their seat cushions into the ring and onto the wrestlers , though this practice is technically prohibited.

In contrast to the time in bout preparation, bouts are typically very short, usually less than a minute most of the time only a few seconds.

Extremely rarely, a bout can go on for several minutes. If a bout lasts up to four minutes, the referee or one of the judges sitting around the ring may call a mizu-iri or " water break ".

The wrestlers are carefully separated, have a brief break, and then return to the exact position they left, as determined by the referee.

If after four more minutes, they are still deadlocked, they may have a second break, after which they start from the beginning. Further deadlock with no end of the bout in sight can lead to a draw hikiwake , an extremely rare result in modern sumo.

The last draw in the top division was in September A sumo wrestler leads a highly regimented way of life. The Sumo Association prescribes the behavior of its wrestlers in some detail.

For example, the association prohibits wrestlers from driving cars, although this is partly out of necessity as many wrestlers are too big to fit behind a steering wheel.

On entering sumo, they are expected to grow their hair long to form a topknot, or chonmage , similar to the samurai hairstyles of the Edo period.

Furthermore, they are expected to wear the chonmage and traditional Japanese dress when in public, allowing them to be identified immediately as wrestlers.

The type and quality of the dress depends on the wrestler's rank. Rikishi in jonidan and below are allowed to wear only a thin cotton robe called a yukata , even in winter.

Furthermore, when outside, they must wear a form of wooden sandal called geta. The higher-ranked sekitori can wear silk robes of their own choice, and the quality of the garb is significantly improved.

Similar distinctions are made in stable life. When the sekitori are training, the junior wrestlers may have chores to do, such as assisting in cooking the lunch, cleaning, and preparing the bath, holding a sekitori' s towel, or wiping the sweat from him.

The ranking hierarchy is preserved for the order of precedence in bathing after training, and in eating lunch. Wrestlers are not normally allowed to eat breakfast and are expected to have a siesta -like nap after a large lunch.

The most common type of lunch served is the traditional sumo meal of chankonabe , which consists of a simmering stew of various fish, meat, and vegetables cooked at the table.

It is usually eaten with rice and washed down with beer. This regimen of no breakfast and a large lunch followed by a sleep is intended to help wrestlers put on a lot of weight so as to compete more effectively.

In the afternoon, the junior wrestlers again usually have cleaning or other chores, while their sekitori counterparts may relax, or deal with work issues related to their fan clubs.

Younger wrestlers also attend classes, although their education differs from the typical curriculum of their non-sumo peers.

In the evening, sekitori may go out with their sponsors, while the junior wrestlers generally stay at home in the stable, unless they are to accompany the stablemaster or a sekitori as his tsukebito manservant when he is out.

Becoming a tsukebito for a senior member of the stable is a typical duty. A sekitori has a number of tsukebito , depending on the size of the stable or in some cases depending on the size of the sekitori.

The junior wrestlers are given the most mundane tasks such as cleaning the stable, running errands, and even washing or massaging the exceptionally large sekitori while only the senior tsukebito accompany the sekitori when he goes out.

De verliezer heeft de ring al eerder verlaten, na een korte hoofdbuiging. Een sumogevecht houdt een fors risico op zware blessures in.

Bij vrijwel elk toernooi doen zich ongelukkige valpartijen voor. Incidenteel moet een rikishi na afloop van een gevecht per rolstoel worden afgevoerd.

Dat komt vooral doordat de sumoring op een verhoging is gebouwd, maar geen hekken of touwen heeft, zoals een boksring. Een sumoworstelaar die uit de ring wordt geduwd, valt eerst een flink stuk omlaag alvorens op de harde grond of tussen de toeschouwers te belanden.

Bovendien gebeurt dat vaak met het bovenlichaam vooraan, omdat de worstelaar probeert zijn voeten zo lang mogelijk binnen de ring te houden.

Tegenwoordig zijn veel worstelaars van een hoge rang niet van Japanse afkomst. Soms wordt hiertegen geprotesteerd door Japanse fans, zelfs als de worstelaar in kwestie de Japanse nationaliteit aanneemt.

Maar in de meeste gevallen geldt dat een buitenlandse worstelaar die zich naar de Japanse mores voegt en zich gedraagt zoals dat een rikishi betaamt, uiteindelijk geaccepteerd wordt.

De eerste buitenlander met de status van yokozuna was, in , Akebono. In bereikte ook Musashimaru de hoogste rang.

Van hen zijn ook Asashoryu in en Hakuho in tot yokozuna gepromoveerd. Asashoryu heeft problemen om geheel geaccepteerd te worden doordat hij zich in de ogen van het publiek niet altijd correct weet te gedragen.

In werd hij zelfs voor twee Basho-toernooien geschorst omdat hij zich onterecht ziek meldde bij een demonstratietoernooi. Hakuho daarentegen gedraagt zich altijd voorbeeldig en is populair bij de Japanse toeschouwers.

De jarige Bulgaar Kaloyan Stefanov Mahlyanov, beter bekend onder zijn sumonaam Kotooshu , werd in de eerste Europeaan aan wie de rang van ozeki is toegekend.

Hij is ook wel redelijk populair, maar hij had na zijn promotie moeite om zijn ozeki-rang waar te maken, door aanhoudende blessures.

Op 24 mei won hij als eerste Europeaan een toernooi. De toename van het aantal buitenlanders wordt volgens waarnemers mede veroorzaakt doordat nog slechts weinig jonge mannen in het welvarende Japan hun hele bestaan in dienst willen stellen van het sumo, zoals van hen dan verwacht wordt.

In landen waar de levensstandaard lager is, zoals die van het voormalige Oostblok, is die bereidheid groter. Sumo is in Europa vooral bekend geworden door de uitzending van de grote Basho sumotoernooien op de televisiezender Eurosport.

Gedurende twaalf jaar, vanaf tot en met , heeft deze zender samenvattingen uitgezonden van alle Basho-toernooien. Een heel basho-toernooi leverde zodoende vijf uitzendingen van een uur op.

De samenvattingen werden meestal met een vertraging van een maand uitgezonden. De uitzendingen van sumo op Eurosport zijn begin echter gestopt zonder enig zicht op hervatting.

De pan-Europese televisiezender en de Sumo-associatie konden het niet eens worden over vernieuwing van het eind afgelopen contract voor de uitzendrechten.

Er heeft zich geen ander Europees televisiestation aangediend om de Basho's uit te zenden. In Nederland besteden de meeste sportrubrieken op radio, televisie en in kranten geen reguliere aandacht aan sumo.

Alleen incidenten, zoals in het overlijden van een pas jarige sumoworstelaar, halen deze rubrieken af en toe. Uit Wikipedia, de vrije encyclopedie.

Media afspelen. Categorie : Sumo. Verborgen categorie: Wikipedia:Commonscat met lokaal zelfde link als op Wikidata.

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