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Follow us on. FACEBOOK INSTAGRAM VK YOUTUBE YOUTUBE (TV of the Lost​) TWITTER TIKTOK TELEGRAM SPOTIFY. MERCHANDISING. Lord of War – Händler des Todes ist ein im Jahr veröffentlichtes Drama von Andrew Niccol in dem mit Nicolas Cage, Ethan Hawke und Jared Leto die. Lord of the Lost (dt. Herr der Verlorenen) ist eine deutsche Dark-Rock-Band aus Hamburg um Sänger und Frontmann Chris Harms. hete-sexdate.be - Kaufen Sie Lord of War - Händler des Todes günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und. Day 2 of piano tracking for album No. 7! In the saddle today: our invisible all-time-​band-member Corvin Bahn, therefore in the producer's pulpit: Gared Dirge.

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A hobbit of The Shire and eight of his companions set out on a quest to Mount Doom to destroy the Ring and the dark lord Sauron. Wir verwenden Cookies, um dir den bestmöglichen Service zu gewährleisten. Für eine technisch uneingeschränkte und sichere Nutzung unserer Webseite. hete-sexdate.be - Kaufen Sie Lord of War - Händler des Todes günstig ein. Qualifizierte Bestellungen werden kostenlos geliefert. Sie finden Rezensionen und.

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Lord of the Rings - The Shire - Music \u0026 Ambience In Chance, Jane ed. The company are first on Haldir's left with the Elves distrusting Gimli and leery of Frodo. Keep track of 24 Trade you watch; tell your friends. Archivado desde el original el 17 de mayo de Boromir spots Gollum following the boats. Archived from the original on 30 October Balin Gimli. Tolkien warned them that he wrote quite slowly, and responded with several stories he had already developed. Director: Peter Jackson. Crime Drama. Yuri verspricht ihr daraufhin, damit aufzuhören, und verdient sein Geld ein halbes Jahr mit legaler Arbeit. Nach zwei Wochen Abgeschiedenheit und exzessivem Kokainkonsum wird Vitaly süchtig. Er beginnt, das von ihm schon Beste Spielothek in Ruttersdorf finden begehrte Model Ava Fontaine zu umwerben, und erreicht mit seinem Geld und Lügen, dass sie ihn heiratet. Mertens verkündete im Juli aus privaten und beruflichen Gründen eine Auszeit bei Lord of the Lost. Der Westen Bundesliga Tippspiel die Quere kommt ihm lediglich sein Widersacher Agent Jack Valentine, der für Interpol arbeitet und der illegale Waffengeschäfte aufdecken will. In dem von den beiden geführten Gespräch verurteilt Valentine Yuris Geschäfte und macht ihm klar, dass neun von zehn Kriegsopfern durch AKSturmgewehre umkommen — solche, wie sie Yuri verkauft. Auf den französischenitalienischen und vielen anderssprachigen Filmplakaten ist Nicolas Cage, Pokersoftware auf dem deutschen, mit Anzug und Koffer abgebildet. Kristol wiederum ist der Name von Irving Kristoleinem amerikanischen Neokonservativender für die militärisch gestützte Hegemonie der USA weltweit Beste Spielothek in Ossingen finden eine Lord Of Revision des Völkerrechts plädierte. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Mai Yuri nimmt an, dass die Tatsache, dass Amerikanische Hymne Гјbersetzung das Geburtsdatum seines einzigen Sohnes als Code für das Container-Zahlenschloss benutzt hat, ausschlaggebend für ihren Weggang gewesen sei. Fears Out of Line. Erstveröffentlichung: 6. März erschien die Blu-ray zum Film. Niccol eignete sich Unmengen an Hintergrundinformationen und Fachwissen an, um den Film realistisch darzustellen. Dieser macht nach seinem Hafttag so weiter wie bisher.

Consultado el 9 de febrero de Consultado el 30 de abril de Archivado desde el original el 30 de abril de Archivado desde el original el 23 de mayo de Archivado desde el original el 17 de mayo de Archivado desde el original el 17 de febrero de The idea for the first chapter "A Long-Expected Party" arrived fully formed, although the reasons behind Bilbo's disappearance, the significance of the Ring, and the title The Lord of the Rings did not arrive until the spring of Writing was slow, because Tolkien had a full-time academic position teaching linguistics with a focus on languages with linguistic elements he incorporated into his books, such as Old English.

Tolkien made another major effort in , and showed the manuscript to his publishers in Tolkien Collection at Marquette University.

Unusually for 20th century novels, the prose narrative is supplemented throughout by over 60 pieces of poetry.

These include verse and songs of many genres: for wandering, marching to war , drinking , and having a bath; narrating ancient myths, riddles , prophecies , and magical incantations; of praise and lament elegy.

Some, such as riddles, charms, elegies, and narrating heroic actions are found in Old English poetry. Tolkien drew on a wide array of influences including language, [23] Christianity , [T 56] mythology , [24] archaeology especially at the Temple of Nodens , [25] ancient and modern literature, and personal experience.

He was inspired primarily by his profession, philology ; [26] his work centred on the study of Old English literature, especially Beowulf , and he acknowledged its importance to his writings.

Scholars and critics have identified many themes in the book , including a reversed quest , [36] [37] the struggle of good and evil , [38] death and immortality, [39] fate and free will, [40] the danger of power, [41] and various aspects of Christianity such as the presence of three Christ figures, for prophet, priest, and king, as well as elements like hope and redemptive suffering.

After Milton Waldman, his contact at Collins, expressed the belief that The Lord of the Rings itself "urgently wanted cutting", Tolkien eventually demanded that they publish the book in The Return of the King was especially delayed due to Tolkien revising the ending and preparing appendices some of which had to be left out because of space constraints.

Tolkien did not like the title The Return of the King , believing it gave away too much of the storyline, but deferred to his publisher's preference.

Tolkien was initially opposed to titles being given to each two-book volume, preferring instead the use of book titles: e.

The Lord of the Rings : Vol. However these individual book titles were dropped, and after pressure from his publishers, Tolkien suggested the volume titles: Vol.

Because the three-volume binding was so widely distributed, the work is often referred to as the Lord of the Rings " trilogy ".

In a letter to the poet W. Auden who famously reviewed the final volume in [54] , Tolkien himself made use of the term "trilogy" for the work [T 63] though he did at other times consider this incorrect, as it was written and conceived as a single book.

The books were published under a profit-sharing arrangement, whereby Tolkien would not receive an advance or royalties until the books had broken even, after which he would take a large share of the profits.

In the early s Donald A. Wollheim , science fiction editor of the paperback publisher Ace Books , claimed that The Lord of the Rings was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because Houghton Mifflin, the US hardcover publisher, had neglected to copyright the work in the United States.

Tolkien took issue with this and quickly notified his fans of this objection. Authorized editions followed from Ballantine Books and Houghton Mifflin to tremendous commercial success.

Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would be published with his consent and establish an unquestioned US copyright.

On 4 September , the novel debuted on New York Times' Paperback Bestsellers list as number three, and was number one by 4 December, a position it held for eight weeks.

In , for the 50th Anniversary Edition, Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull , under supervision from Christopher Tolkien, studied and revised the text to eliminate as many errors and inconsistencies as possible, some of which had been introduced by well-meaning compositors of the first printing in , and never been corrected.

Further corrections were made in the 60th Anniversary Edition in Several editions, notably the 50th Anniversary Edition, combine all three books into one volume, with the result that pagination varies widely over the various editions.

From to Christopher Tolkien published the surviving drafts of The Lord of The Rings , chronicling and illuminating with commentary the stages of the text's development, in volumes 6—9 of his History of Middle-earth series.

The novel has been translated, with varying degrees of success, into at least 56 languages. Because The Lord of the Rings purports to be a translation of the fictitious Red Book of Westmarch , with the English language representing the Westron of the "original", Tolkien suggested that translators attempt to capture the interplay between English and the invented nomenclature of the English work, and gave several examples along with general guidance.

While early reviews for The Lord of the Rings were mixed, reviews in various media have been, on the whole, highly positive and acknowledge Tolkien's literary achievement as a significant one.

The initial review in the Sunday Telegraph described it as "among the greatest works of imaginative fiction of the twentieth century".

Auden , a former pupil of Tolkien's and an admirer of his writings, regarded The Lord of the Rings as a "masterpiece", further stating that in some cases it outdid the achievement of John Milton 's Paradise Lost.

Slater wrote in Nebula Science Fiction , April , " Even within Tolkien's literary group, The Inklings , reviews were mixed.

Hugo Dyson complained loudly at its readings. Lewis , had very different feelings, writing, "here are beauties which pierce like swords or burn like cold iron.

Here is a book which will break your heart. Despite its numerous detractors, the publication of the Ace Books and Ballantine paperbacks helped The Lord of the Rings become immensely popular in the United States in the s.

The book has remained so ever since, ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century, judged by both sales and reader surveys.

In similar polls both Germany [77] and Australia [78] also found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite book. In a poll of Amazon.

Judith Shulevitz, a New York Times reviewer, criticized the "pedantry" of Tolkien's literary style, saying that he "formulated a high-minded belief in the importance of his mission as a literary preservationist, which turns out to be death to literature itself".

Both the characters and the work itself were, according to Jenkyns, "anemic, and lacking in fibre". A few critics have found what they consider racial elements in the story, which are generally based upon their views of how Tolkien's imagery depicts good and evil, characters' race e.

The opinions that pit races against each other most likely reflect Tolkien's criticism of war rather than a racist perspective.

In The Two Towers , the character Sam sees a fallen foe, a man of colour, and considers the humanity of this fallen Southron. Others have seen social class rather than race as the determining factor in the portrayal of good and evil.

The book has been adapted for radio four times. In the s radio station WBAI produced a short radio adaptation. A variety of filmmakers considered adapting Tolkien's book, among them Stanley Kubrick , who thought it unfilmable, [96] [97] Michaelangelo Antonioni , Heinz Edelmann , [98] and John Boorman.

The first was J. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , by animator Ralph Bakshi , the first part of what was originally intended to be a two-part adaptation of the story; it covers The Fellowship of the Ring and part of The Two Towers.

All three parts won multiple Academy Awards , including consecutive Best Picture nominations. The final instalment of this trilogy was the second film to break the one-billion-dollar barrier and won a total of 11 Oscars something only two other films in history, Ben-Hur and Titanic , have accomplished , including Best Picture , Best Director and Best Adapted Screenplay.

Rankin and Bass used a loophole in the publication of The Lord of the Rings which made it public domain in the US to make an animated TV special based on the closing chapters of The Return of the King.

It came out in to mixed reviews. In , Amazon acquired the global television rights to The Lord of the Rings for a multi-season television series of new stories set before The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, [] based on J.

Tolkien's writings about events of the Second Age of Middle-earth. A large-scale musical theatre adaptation, The Lord of the Rings was first staged in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in and opened in London in June ; it was a commercial failure.

The enormous popularity of Tolkien's work expanded the demand for fantasy fiction. Largely thanks to The Lord of the Rings, the genre flowered throughout the s, and enjoys popularity to the present day.

The opus has spawned many imitators, such as The Sword of Shannara , which Lin Carter called "the single most cold-blooded, complete rip-off of another book that I have ever read".

However, Gary Gygax , lead designer of the game, maintained that he was influenced very little by The Lord of the Rings , stating that he included these elements as a marketing move to draw on the popularity the work enjoyed at the time he was developing the game.

Rock bands of the s were musically and lyrically inspired by the fantasy embracing counter-culture of the time; British 70s rock band Led Zeppelin recorded several songs that contain explicit references to The Lord of the Rings , such as mentioning Gollum in " Ramble On ", the Misty Mountains in " Misty Mountain Hop ", and Ringwraiths in " The Battle of Evermore ".

In , the Swedish musician Bo Hansson released an instrumental concept album based on the book titled Sagan om ringen translated as "The Saga of the Ring", which was the title of the Swedish translation of The Lord of the Rings at the time.

The Lord of the Rings has had a profound and wide-ranging impact on popular culture, beginning with its publication in the s, but especially throughout the s and s, during which time young people embraced it as a countercultural saga.

Among the numerous parodies is Harvard Lampoon 's Bored of the Rings , which has had the distinction of remaining continuously in print from its publication in , and of being translated into at least eleven languages.

Since then all "authorised" merchandise has been signed-off by Tolkien Enterprises, although the intellectual property rights of the specific likenesses of characters and other imagery from various adaptations is generally held by the adaptors.

Outside any commercial exploitation from adaptations, from the late s onwards there has been an increasing variety of original licensed merchandise, from posters and calendars created by illustrators such as Barbara Remington.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the book. For the film series, see The Lord of the Rings film series. For other uses, see The Lord of the Rings disambiguation.

For other uses, see War of the Ring disambiguation. Fantasy Adventure. Main article: Poetry in The Lord of the Rings. Main article: J.

Tolkien's influences. Main article: Themes of The Lord of the Rings. Main article: Translations of The Lord of the Rings. Main article: Reception of J.

Main article: Adaptations of The Lord of the Rings. Main article: Middle-earth in film. Main article: Works inspired by J. Speculative fiction portal Novels portal.

Lewis's "lies breathed through silver", writing the poem Mythopoeia to present his argument; it was first published in Tree and Leaf in The two were in fact first and second cousins, once removed either way his paternal great-great-uncle's son's son and his maternal great-aunt's son.

Houghton Mifflin. The Lord of the Rings: Tolkien's Epic. Tolkien's Art: A Mythology for England. Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 8 March The Tolkien Society.

Archived from the original PDF on 3 March Retrieved 24 October Tolkien , Boston: Houghton Mifflin , Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 4 December Tolkien: A Biographical Sketch".

Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 16 June The J. Tolkien Companion and Guide: II. Reader's Guide. National Geographic.

Archived from the original on 13 June Oxford University Press. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 3 April Archived from the original on 8 December Retrieved 8 December October He claims, in essence, that the story was already written Archived from the original PDF on 27 February Retrieved 14 June This PDF contains no information about its source.

It appears to be a lecture for a course on Tolkien by Assoc. Tolkien Finally Speaks Out". Archived from the original on 10 February Rochester, NY.

Archived from the original on 19 December Connotations: A Journal for Critical Debate. Archived from the original on 8 November Retrieved 15 May Journal of Tolkien Research.

Action Crime Drama. Inception Action Adventure Sci-Fi. Gladiator The Silence of the Lambs Crime Drama Thriller. Edit Storyline An ancient Ring thought lost for centuries has been found, and through a strange twist of fate has been given to a small Hobbit named Frodo.

Taglines: Middle Earth comes alive Edit Did You Know? Trivia The nocturnal screams of possums were used for the screeches made by the Orcs in the mines of Moria.

Goofs In the Extended Edition, when Gandalf begins to speak in the language of Mordor, a long shot of Elrond is seen, at which point he puts his hand on his forehead.

In the close-up immediately afterwards, his hand is down and he again puts it to his head. Quotes [ first lines ] Galadriel : The world is changed.

I feel it in the water. I feel it in the earth. I smell it in the air. Much that once was is lost, for none now live who remember it.

It began with the forging of the Great Rings. Three were given to the Elves, immortal, wisest and fairest of all beings.

Seven to the Dwarf lords, great miners and craftsmen of the mountain halls. And nine, nine rings were gifted to the race of Men, who, above all else, desire power.

But they were, all of them, deceived, for Crazy Credits After the end credits, the DVD and Blu Ray editions of the extended cut feature a list of "Lord of the Rings fan-club members" who contributed financially to the project in exchange for a credit.

This additional credit sequence lasts 20 minutes. During the prologue, more is shown of the ambush and death of Isildur, emphasizing his betrayal by the Ring.

After the prologue, we open with a close-up of the Middle Earth map and pan to hear Bilbo writing his book, starting with a description of hobbits.

Much of the Gandalf-Frodo dialog in their first scene together is removed, including the subtitle "60 Years Later". During the party, Bilbo greets a guest, then hides from the S.

B's with Frodo. He tells Frodo how much the latter means to him. References are made to troubles in the outside world and Frodo encourages Sam to pursue a relationship with Rosie Cotton.

After Frodo and Sam set out, they hear singing and find the woodelves leaving for the Gray Havens. After the company leaves Bree, they pass through the Midgewater Marshes.

Later, Aragorn brings a killed deer to the hobbits. Frodo wakes up late at night to hear Aragorn singing about Beren and Luthien.

The stone trolls from "The Hobbit" are shown. Additional dialog between Aragon and Boromir during the "still sharp" scene with Narsil.

In the Council of Elrond, Boromir mentions his dream and reaches for the Ring. Gandalf recites the poem "One Ring to rule them all..

After the Council of Elrond, Aragorn visits his mother's grave and remembers Elrond telling him of his destiny. This is followed by another scene in which the company are sent off by Elrond and the elves.

Gandalf stops Frodo as they approach Moria to warn him about the Ring's power growing. In the mines, Gandalf mentions mithril and lights up an old mithril mine.

He notes the value of Bilbo's mithril shirt. Additional fight scenes during the battle in the Chamber of the Marzabul. Lothlorien is completely revised.

The company are first on Haldir's left with the Elves distrusting Gimli and leery of Frodo. Scene of the elves and the company approaching Caras Galadhon.

More dialog when Celeborn and Galadriel meet the company. Sam recites a poem verse about Gandalf. Galadriel acknowledges her possession of one of the elf-rings.

As the Fellowship leaves, Galadriel gives them each a personalized gift that will end up being critical to their future.

Celeborn gives Aragorn a knife before they leave and warns them they are being tracked by something.

Lord Of Insbesondere ist seine Unterstützung der barbarischen Revolutionary Lord Of Front historisch richtig eingeordnet, und auch die Parteinahme der Amerikaner Weisz wird wohl bei einer Waffenlieferung an die Rebellen gefasst für Taylors Gegenspieler. Allerdings ist Taylors Sohn, im Gegensatz zum Sohn von Baptiste, nicht bei einer Waffenlieferung zu Tode gekommen, sondern er ist derzeit in Miami inhaftiert. Da der Film Parship Erfahrung nicht davor zurückschreckt, die Rolle der Vereinigten Staaten im weltweiten Waffenhandel zu zeigen, und man unfreiwillig das Skript eine Woche vor Beginn des Irak-Kriegs eingereicht hatte, verbaute man sich die Finanzierung durch amerikanische Gelder. Bald darauf wird ihr Sohn geboren. Februar Bald trifft er mit einem Beste Spielothek in Bieha finden Schmuggelschiffe zum ersten Mal auf Jack Valentine, einen unermüdlichen und unbestechlichen Interpol -Agenten. Swan Songs Out of Line. Yuri verschweigt Ava seine Waffengeschäfte und gibt stattdessen lediglich vor, im Transportgeschäft tätig zu sein. Dann beobachtet er, wie ein Junge und dessen Mutter brutal ermordet werden. März Für Google Android Download Zielgruppe eignet sich Lord Beste Spielothek in Aberzhausen finden War und warum ist der Film besonders sehenswert? November und nach weiteren drei Drehtagen in Tschechien ihr Ende.

Consultado el 30 de abril de Archivado desde el original el 30 de abril de Archivado desde el original el 23 de mayo de Archivado desde el original el 17 de mayo de Archivado desde el original el 17 de febrero de Control de autoridades Proyectos Wikimedia Datos: Q Datos: Q Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial.

Proyectos Wikimedia Datos: Q Seventeen years later, after Gandalf confirms this is true, he tells Frodo the history of the Ring and counsels him to take it away from the Shire.

There they are aided by Tom Bombadil , a strange and merry fellow who lives with his wife Goldberry in the forest. The hobbits reach the town of Bree , where they encounter a Ranger named Strider , whom Gandalf had mentioned in a letter.

Strider persuades the hobbits to take him on as their guide and protector. Frodo falls deathly ill from the wound. Frodo recovers in Rivendell under Elrond's care.

Strider is revealed to be Aragorn , Isildur's heir. Gandalf reports that the chief wizard Saruman has betrayed them and is now working to become a power in his own right.

The Council decides that the Ring must be destroyed, but that can only be done by sending it to the fire of Mount Doom in Mordor, where it was forged.

Frodo takes this task upon himself. After a failed attempt to cross the Misty Mountains over the Redhorn Pass, the Company take the perilous path through the Mines of Moria.

They learn of the fate of Balin and his colony of Dwarves. Gandalf faces the Balrog, and both of them fall into the abyss. Frodo chooses to go alone to Mordor, but Sam guesses what he intends and goes with him.

They decide to pursue the Orcs taking Merry and Pippin to Saruman. There they unexpectedly meet Gandalf. Gandalf explains that he killed the Balrog.

Darkness took him, but he was sent back to Middle-earth to complete his mission. He is clothed in white and is now Gandalf the White, for he has taken Saruman's place as the chief of the wizards.

Gandalf assures his friends that Merry and Pippin are safe. Meanwhile, the Ents, roused by Merry and Pippin from their peaceful ways, attack Isengard , Saruman's stronghold, and trap the wizard in the tower of Orthanc.

Gandalf brings an army of Rohirrim to Helm's Deep, and they defeat the Orcs, who flee into the forest of Huorns, never to be seen again. When Saruman refuses to listen, Gandalf strips him of his rank and most of his powers.

After Saruman crawls back to his prison, Wormtongue throws a round object to try to kill Gandalf. Pippin picks it up. Gandalf takes it, but Pippin steals it in the night.

Pippin is seen by Sauron. Gandalf rides for Minas Tirith , chief city of Gondor, taking Pippin with him. Frodo and Sam capture Gollum, who has followed them from Moria.

They force him to guide them to Mordor. But with the help of Galadriel's gifts, Sam fights off the spider. Orcs find Frodo; Sam overhears them and learns that Frodo is still alive.

Sauron sends a great army against Gondor. Minas Tirith is besieged. Denethor is deceived by Sauron and falls into despair. He burns himself alive on a pyre, nearly taking his son Faramir with him.

Aragorn defeats the Corsairs and uses their ships to transport the men of southern Gondor up the Anduin , [T 43] reaching Minas Tirith just in time to turn the tide of battle.

Meanwhile, Sam rescues Frodo from the tower of Cirith Ungol. Sauron attacked with overwhelming force. He claims it for himself and puts it on his finger.

Gollum suddenly reappears. He struggles with Frodo and bites off Frodo's finger with the Ring still on it.

Celebrating wildly, Gollum loses his footing and falls into the Fire, taking the Ring with him. The hobbits raise a rebellion and liberate the Shire.

He is killed in turn by hobbit archers, and the War of the Ring comes to its true end on Frodo's very doorstep. Merry and Pippin are celebrated as heroes.

Sam marries Rosie Cotton and uses his gifts from Galadriel to help heal the Shire. But Frodo is still wounded in body and spirit, having borne the Ring for so long.

In the appendices, Sam gives his daughter Elanor the Red Book of Westmarch , which contains the story of Bilbo's adventures and the War of the Ring as witnessed by the hobbits.

Sam is then said to have crossed west over the Sea himself, the last of the Ring-bearers. Tolkien presents The Lord of the Rings within a fictional frame-story where he is not the original author, but merely the translator of part of an ancient document, the Red Book of Westmarch.

The Lord of the Rings started as a sequel to J. Tolkien's work The Hobbit , published in Tolkien warned them that he wrote quite slowly, and responded with several stories he had already developed.

The story would not be finished until 12 years later, in , and would not be fully published until , when Tolkien was 63 years old.

Persuaded by his publishers, he started "a new Hobbit" in December The idea for the first chapter "A Long-Expected Party" arrived fully formed, although the reasons behind Bilbo's disappearance, the significance of the Ring, and the title The Lord of the Rings did not arrive until the spring of Writing was slow, because Tolkien had a full-time academic position teaching linguistics with a focus on languages with linguistic elements he incorporated into his books, such as Old English.

Tolkien made another major effort in , and showed the manuscript to his publishers in Tolkien Collection at Marquette University. Unusually for 20th century novels, the prose narrative is supplemented throughout by over 60 pieces of poetry.

These include verse and songs of many genres: for wandering, marching to war , drinking , and having a bath; narrating ancient myths, riddles , prophecies , and magical incantations; of praise and lament elegy.

Some, such as riddles, charms, elegies, and narrating heroic actions are found in Old English poetry. Tolkien drew on a wide array of influences including language, [23] Christianity , [T 56] mythology , [24] archaeology especially at the Temple of Nodens , [25] ancient and modern literature, and personal experience.

He was inspired primarily by his profession, philology ; [26] his work centred on the study of Old English literature, especially Beowulf , and he acknowledged its importance to his writings.

Scholars and critics have identified many themes in the book , including a reversed quest , [36] [37] the struggle of good and evil , [38] death and immortality, [39] fate and free will, [40] the danger of power, [41] and various aspects of Christianity such as the presence of three Christ figures, for prophet, priest, and king, as well as elements like hope and redemptive suffering.

After Milton Waldman, his contact at Collins, expressed the belief that The Lord of the Rings itself "urgently wanted cutting", Tolkien eventually demanded that they publish the book in The Return of the King was especially delayed due to Tolkien revising the ending and preparing appendices some of which had to be left out because of space constraints.

Tolkien did not like the title The Return of the King , believing it gave away too much of the storyline, but deferred to his publisher's preference.

Tolkien was initially opposed to titles being given to each two-book volume, preferring instead the use of book titles: e. The Lord of the Rings : Vol.

However these individual book titles were dropped, and after pressure from his publishers, Tolkien suggested the volume titles: Vol.

Because the three-volume binding was so widely distributed, the work is often referred to as the Lord of the Rings " trilogy ".

In a letter to the poet W. Auden who famously reviewed the final volume in [54] , Tolkien himself made use of the term "trilogy" for the work [T 63] though he did at other times consider this incorrect, as it was written and conceived as a single book.

The books were published under a profit-sharing arrangement, whereby Tolkien would not receive an advance or royalties until the books had broken even, after which he would take a large share of the profits.

In the early s Donald A. Wollheim , science fiction editor of the paperback publisher Ace Books , claimed that The Lord of the Rings was not protected in the United States under American copyright law because Houghton Mifflin, the US hardcover publisher, had neglected to copyright the work in the United States.

Tolkien took issue with this and quickly notified his fans of this objection. Authorized editions followed from Ballantine Books and Houghton Mifflin to tremendous commercial success.

Tolkien undertook various textual revisions to produce a version of the book that would be published with his consent and establish an unquestioned US copyright.

On 4 September , the novel debuted on New York Times' Paperback Bestsellers list as number three, and was number one by 4 December, a position it held for eight weeks.

In , for the 50th Anniversary Edition, Wayne G. Hammond and Christina Scull , under supervision from Christopher Tolkien, studied and revised the text to eliminate as many errors and inconsistencies as possible, some of which had been introduced by well-meaning compositors of the first printing in , and never been corrected.

Further corrections were made in the 60th Anniversary Edition in Several editions, notably the 50th Anniversary Edition, combine all three books into one volume, with the result that pagination varies widely over the various editions.

From to Christopher Tolkien published the surviving drafts of The Lord of The Rings , chronicling and illuminating with commentary the stages of the text's development, in volumes 6—9 of his History of Middle-earth series.

The novel has been translated, with varying degrees of success, into at least 56 languages. Because The Lord of the Rings purports to be a translation of the fictitious Red Book of Westmarch , with the English language representing the Westron of the "original", Tolkien suggested that translators attempt to capture the interplay between English and the invented nomenclature of the English work, and gave several examples along with general guidance.

While early reviews for The Lord of the Rings were mixed, reviews in various media have been, on the whole, highly positive and acknowledge Tolkien's literary achievement as a significant one.

The initial review in the Sunday Telegraph described it as "among the greatest works of imaginative fiction of the twentieth century".

Auden , a former pupil of Tolkien's and an admirer of his writings, regarded The Lord of the Rings as a "masterpiece", further stating that in some cases it outdid the achievement of John Milton 's Paradise Lost.

Slater wrote in Nebula Science Fiction , April , " Even within Tolkien's literary group, The Inklings , reviews were mixed.

Hugo Dyson complained loudly at its readings. Lewis , had very different feelings, writing, "here are beauties which pierce like swords or burn like cold iron.

Here is a book which will break your heart. Despite its numerous detractors, the publication of the Ace Books and Ballantine paperbacks helped The Lord of the Rings become immensely popular in the United States in the s.

The book has remained so ever since, ranking as one of the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century, judged by both sales and reader surveys.

In similar polls both Germany [77] and Australia [78] also found The Lord of the Rings to be their favourite book.

In a poll of Amazon. Judith Shulevitz, a New York Times reviewer, criticized the "pedantry" of Tolkien's literary style, saying that he "formulated a high-minded belief in the importance of his mission as a literary preservationist, which turns out to be death to literature itself".

Both the characters and the work itself were, according to Jenkyns, "anemic, and lacking in fibre". A few critics have found what they consider racial elements in the story, which are generally based upon their views of how Tolkien's imagery depicts good and evil, characters' race e.

The opinions that pit races against each other most likely reflect Tolkien's criticism of war rather than a racist perspective. In The Two Towers , the character Sam sees a fallen foe, a man of colour, and considers the humanity of this fallen Southron.

Others have seen social class rather than race as the determining factor in the portrayal of good and evil.

The book has been adapted for radio four times. In the s radio station WBAI produced a short radio adaptation. A variety of filmmakers considered adapting Tolkien's book, among them Stanley Kubrick , who thought it unfilmable, [96] [97] Michaelangelo Antonioni , Heinz Edelmann , [98] and John Boorman.

The first was J. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , by animator Ralph Bakshi , the first part of what was originally intended to be a two-part adaptation of the story; it covers The Fellowship of the Ring and part of The Two Towers.

All three parts won multiple Academy Awards , including consecutive Best Picture nominations. The final instalment of this trilogy was the second film to break the one-billion-dollar barrier and won a total of 11 Oscars something only two other films in history, Ben-Hur and Titanic , have accomplished , including Best Picture , Best Director and Best Adapted Screenplay.

Rankin and Bass used a loophole in the publication of The Lord of the Rings which made it public domain in the US to make an animated TV special based on the closing chapters of The Return of the King.

It came out in to mixed reviews. In , Amazon acquired the global television rights to The Lord of the Rings for a multi-season television series of new stories set before The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, [] based on J.

Tolkien's writings about events of the Second Age of Middle-earth. A large-scale musical theatre adaptation, The Lord of the Rings was first staged in Toronto, Ontario, Canada in and opened in London in June ; it was a commercial failure.

The enormous popularity of Tolkien's work expanded the demand for fantasy fiction. Largely thanks to The Lord of the Rings, the genre flowered throughout the s, and enjoys popularity to the present day.

The opus has spawned many imitators, such as The Sword of Shannara , which Lin Carter called "the single most cold-blooded, complete rip-off of another book that I have ever read".

However, Gary Gygax , lead designer of the game, maintained that he was influenced very little by The Lord of the Rings , stating that he included these elements as a marketing move to draw on the popularity the work enjoyed at the time he was developing the game.

Rock bands of the s were musically and lyrically inspired by the fantasy embracing counter-culture of the time; British 70s rock band Led Zeppelin recorded several songs that contain explicit references to The Lord of the Rings , such as mentioning Gollum in " Ramble On ", the Misty Mountains in " Misty Mountain Hop ", and Ringwraiths in " The Battle of Evermore ".

In , the Swedish musician Bo Hansson released an instrumental concept album based on the book titled Sagan om ringen translated as "The Saga of the Ring", which was the title of the Swedish translation of The Lord of the Rings at the time.

The Lord of the Rings has had a profound and wide-ranging impact on popular culture, beginning with its publication in the s, but especially throughout the s and s, during which time young people embraced it as a countercultural saga.

Among the numerous parodies is Harvard Lampoon 's Bored of the Rings , which has had the distinction of remaining continuously in print from its publication in , and of being translated into at least eleven languages.

Since then all "authorised" merchandise has been signed-off by Tolkien Enterprises, although the intellectual property rights of the specific likenesses of characters and other imagery from various adaptations is generally held by the adaptors.

Outside any commercial exploitation from adaptations, from the late s onwards there has been an increasing variety of original licensed merchandise, from posters and calendars created by illustrators such as Barbara Remington.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the book. For the film series, see The Lord of the Rings film series.

For other uses, see The Lord of the Rings disambiguation. For other uses, see War of the Ring disambiguation. Fantasy Adventure. Main article: Poetry in The Lord of the Rings.

Main article: J. Tolkien's influences. Main article: Themes of The Lord of the Rings. Main article: Translations of The Lord of the Rings.

Main article: Reception of J. Main article: Adaptations of The Lord of the Rings. Main article: Middle-earth in film.

Main article: Works inspired by J. Speculative fiction portal Novels portal. Lewis's "lies breathed through silver", writing the poem Mythopoeia to present his argument; it was first published in Tree and Leaf in The two were in fact first and second cousins, once removed either way his paternal great-great-uncle's son's son and his maternal great-aunt's son.

Houghton Mifflin. The Lord of the Rings: Tolkien's Epic. Tolkien's Art: A Mythology for England. Toronto Star. Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 8 March The Tolkien Society.

Archived from the original PDF on 3 March Retrieved 24 October Tolkien , Boston: Houghton Mifflin , Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 4 December Tolkien: A Biographical Sketch".

Archived from the original on 3 March Retrieved 16 June The J. Tolkien Companion and Guide: II. Reader's Guide. National Geographic.

Archived from the original on 13 June Oxford University Press. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 5 December Retrieved 3 April Archived from the original on 8 December Retrieved 8 December October He claims, in essence, that the story was already written Archived from the original PDF on 27 February Retrieved 14 June This PDF contains no information about its source.

It appears to be a lecture for a course on Tolkien by Assoc. Tolkien Finally Speaks Out". Archived from the original on 10 February Rochester, NY.

Archived from the original on 19 December Connotations: A Journal for Critical Debate. Archived from the original on 8 November Retrieved 15 May Journal of Tolkien Research.

Article 4. Archived from the original on 1 August Journal of Tolkien Studies. Tolkien ' ". Article 2. The Road to Middle-Earth Third ed.

In Drout, Michael D. Tolkien Encyclopedia: Scholarship and Critical Assessment. National Geographic News.

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